Wednesday, 3 April 2019

Hypothesis


 Introduction
A hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. Not all studies have hypotheses. Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory (see inductive research). 
Hypothesis




  • It is prediction
  • It is a tentative statement.
  • The validity is not known.
  • Logical relationship between two variables.
  • Capable of being tested by scientific methods.
  • It must be used in generalization.
  • It should be clear.

 Let's say that someone predict that there will be a relationship between two variables in your study. The way we would formally set up the hypothesis test is to formulate two hypothesis statements, one that describes your prediction and one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesized relationship. Your prediction is that variable A and variable B will be related (someone don't care whether it's a positive or negative relationship). Then the only other possible outcome would be that variable A and variable B are not related.

Types
Hypothesis is of basically two types
Alternate Hypothesis – Ha or H1
Null Hypothesis – H0
Usually, we call the hypothesis that you support prediction the alternative hypothesis, and we call the hypothesis that describes the remaining possible outcomes the null hypothesis.
You have to be careful here, though. In some studies, your prediction might very well be that there will be no difference or change. In this case, you are essentially trying to find support for the null hypothesis and you are opposed to the alternative.

The null hypothesis for this study is:
HO: As a result of the XYZ company employee training program, there will either be no significant difference in employee absenteeism or there will be a significant increase.
This is tested against the alternative hypothesis:
HA: As a result of the XYZ company employee training program, there will be a significant decrease in employee absenteeism.

In the figure on the left, we see this situation illustrated graphically. The alternative hypothesis -- your prediction that the program will decrease absenteeism -- is shown there. The null must account for the other two possible conditions: no difference or an increase in absenteeism. The figure shows a hypothetical distribution of absenteeism differences. We can see that the term "one-tailed" refers to the tail of the distribution on the outcome variable.
When your prediction does not specify a direction, we say you have a two-tailed hypothesis.

For Example: let's assume you are studying a new drug treatment for depression. The drug has gone through some initial animal trials, but has not yet been tested on humans. You believe (based on theory and the previous research) that the drug will have an effect, but you are not confident enough to hypothesize a direction and say the drug will reduce depression (after all, you've seen more than enough promising drug treatments come along that eventually were shown to have severe side effects that actually worsened symptoms). In this case, you might state the two hypotheses like this:
The null hypothesis for this study is:
HO: As a result of 300 mg. /day of the ABC drug, there will be no significant difference in depression.
 Which is tested against the alternative hypothesis?
HA: As a result of 300 mg. /day of the ABC drug, there will be a significant difference in depression.

Characteristics of hypothesis in Research Methodology
Characteristics of hypothesis: Hypothesis must possess the following characteristics:
1.       Hypothesis should be clear and precise. If the hypothesis is not clear and precise, the inferences drawn on its basis cannot be taken as reliable.
2.       Hypothesis should be capable of being tested.
3.       Hypothesis should state relationship between variables, if it happens to be a relational hypothesis.
4.       Hypothesis should be limited in scope and must be specific. A researcher must remember that narrower hypotheses are generally more testable and he should develop such hypothesis.
5.      Hypothesis must explain the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation.

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